Indian temples were made according to carved into stone cliffs or accumulation of rock were out. That is the subtraction which is used as an art and design tool. In addition, by means od this subtraction, structures carried by caves they had not got any supported other architectural elements that they used them only representation. Actually, they relied their structures on the nature of their environment. Gupta is where the acme of this subtraction works. There are some cave monasteries, rock-cut temples and masonry temples that are the first important that built alike pyramids over small sanctuaries.
Chaitya is a big hall with a stupa at one end and it is a Buddhist shrine. The earliest Indian rock-cut temples are in Bhaja. They used wooden architecture in the stone hall. That is the likely sense of freestanding constructions. When people entered the chaitya hall at Bhaja go over arch shape with struts. ( -wooden door, – octagonal columns, – simple posts without bases.) There is a pedestal where is at the end of the chaitya hall that resembles (plan bears) to early Christian basilicas in terms of side ambulatories. In addition, both halls similar ritual functions. Caves walls were made smooth and purely for the touching. I want to take a quotation from the reading “The darkness thickened with each step, and the certainties of time and place elapsed.”
There is a similarity between the Persian capitals and Indians that poised on pot-shaped bases and crowned. In addition, I want to say somethings about the harmika. It is a rectangular mass that at the top of the stupa and it has clerestory openings.
Ashoka’s sacred Buddhist shrine, locating the square temples onto the colonnaded porch. Those blocks carved and transported from caves to the zone.
Mandapa is a space that included a hypostyle aggregation. According to reading, in the sixteenth century, Portuguese called it an elephant guarding its entry which is northern one. The mandapa hall that great one was carved in a cruciform. I think that comes from their religious beliefs. Besides, a diamond pattern which was created by different numbers of columns.