The new monotheistic religion, Ilam, spread from Arabia to Persia, Southwest Asia, and North Africa. In order to attract attention from other faiths. The Ummayad leadership sat up the exceptional plan structure of The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Throughout the Islamic period, they constructed conventional hypostyle prayer hall the example of that is Friday Mosques.
The mosque is multi-columned hall, provided the new religious attention of the cities under Islamic rule. Mosques have minaret that a slender tower for muezzin or crier calling the prayers. There is a radial orientation of mosques and other religious things toward to Mecca which has been a major cult site for attracting pligrims to the Kaba is cunical granite house including many religious idols and it was maden with method of vernacular architecture by using mud- brick walls and palm-trunk roof. Also it covered by portico, deepness is as much two columns deep. Qibla is new thing that is orientation of all prayers. Previously, qibla towarded to Jerusalem but then prophet Muhammad redirected qibla from Jerusalem to Kaaba.
The Mosque of Prophet in Medina is similar to caravansaries. Actually, Muhammad and his followers reflected the approach to architecture in this way. There is a similarity between the early Christians and the first Muslims, preferred the base their cult buildings on secular structures rather than the form of their pagan temples. The first mosques provided simple architectural things. Mainly, there was a large covered hall and the rows of believers toward to qibla by mean that Kaaba, Mecca. As same as in basilicas, the longitudinal wall of mosques called qibla wall and the Isotropic hypostyle hall.
The Ummayads established in the Greco-Roman city of Damascus, Syria. The Arabs had rare terminology about the masonry architecture. They took refrence from Persian, Roman and Byzantine about the form and technique. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, they hired an architect Byzantian and mosaic artist of Constantinople. There isa similarity between the Christian martyrium and elevated terrace. Islamic architecture mainly about ablaq, pointed arches, and band of different masonry. There is a difference between The Dome of the Rock and Christian churches is central-plan, In the Dome of the Rock there are two attention points. One one hand, The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina is the first entailed enlarging to which added mosaic and the first mihrab is a nishwhich decorated and indicating the qibla to Mecca. Maksura ia where the door next to the mihrab on the left led directly into the caliph’s palace, while a screened area to the right. The Maksura duplicated from palantine churches in Byzantine. Minbar is a podium next to the mihrab and an elevated platform.
The colossal Corinthian columns stilled horseshoe-shaped arches. Actually, they were leveled. I mean that smaller columns and arches on top of each other above the arcade. This situation provides evanescent lighting that gave the interior a magnificent sense of transparency.