Because of the underwent invasions, the population decreased in the cities of the western half of the Roman Empire. Due to the feudal system, Christian monasteries be left the most inspired expression of European. It became more important and designed like a city. Actually, there was a social order that relevant with the optimistic architectural expression of this order.
Charlemagne had an itinerant court and sponsored many constructions. He supported monastic settlements like the Khmer rulers. Charlemagne’s palace constructed with multi-cultural architectural styles such as the court borrowed from Byzantine and palace organization was taken from Constantine. The Palatine Chapel had two-storied octagonal supporting a dome on a drum and its structural components are left thicker so, interior space darker than those. There was a similarity between Great Mosque of Cordoba and Christian architecture are that colors and arches. At the facade, there were two towers known as a westwork. These monumental thresholds were used for emperor’s visits but in later it changed.designers followed the local architecture techniques of Roman. About the structural system of the roof, it was designed according to a colder climate. Romanesque means that Italian and Barbarian motifs mixed and both enriched and contradicted the classical Roman type. The designer used grid by the division of 16 units that created to divide in a half. The church sited on the north so, it does not block the sunlight to major structures. In addition, the cloister at the core of the plan represented the main space of the religious community. The changes on the abbey’s plan appeared an importance for the politics and they set them inside the substantial walls. After some hazards, atrium became to the courtyard of a new palace for the abbort. After all things, architecture arose astringent and disciplined so, whatever form, style it created own style.
Le Thoronet Abbey has rejected decoration which relying on the bare structure for aesthetic pleasure. They used a perfect ratio that controlled elevations and ground plan. Christians abandoned the facades which are monumental and only there was a bell on the rose tower on faces. Actually, they abandoned the ornaments at the facade and inside the structure because they thought that these things distributing the people’ perception of religious attention. The sloping site of the Le Thoronet affected its layout.
Normans, their earlier role destroyed the monasteries, they became to rebuilt them. They founded monasteries to reinforce. First, they rebuilt sanctuary of Mont. St. Michel. The architect expanded the site into a monastery that includes cloister, refectory, chapter house, and dormitory. They built more eight castles that using motte-and-bailey system. Motte like a raised on a mound of the earth. Bailey is an enclosed courtyard. Besides, Norman palace by mixed Arab and Byzantine styles. The interior of palace resembled basilica of the early Christians and Corinthian columns carried Islamic-inspired pointed arches. In the La Ziza, there was a similarity between Abbasid Baghdad is that iwan-like arches. They used the wind condition for their buildings in a positive way. This recalled the foundation courts in al-Andalus.
During the eleventh and twelfth century, pilgrims began to sacred relies on faraway sites. There were three tombs as a principle goals for medieval pilgrims:
- Chris’s Hay Sepulcher in Jerusalem
- Peter’s Crypt in Rome
- James in Compostela, Spain
Tribune was a second-story gallery which wrapped around the pilgrims as place a rest.