The Ottoman Empire / Global Architecture

From the fifteenth to the eighteenth century Ottoman Turks ruled as leading force of the Mediterranean. Like the old Romans, it is a well-organized army to control the constructions and maintenance of public works. The new walls of Jerusalem built by the Ottoman army, the impressive infrastructure projects such as the Suleyman Bridge in Buyukcekmece and the Maglavaaqueduct compete with the Romans. While organizing the steps of the city with their stepped dome and pointed arches used mostly. According to the Byzantine insight following the Roman traditions, cities were arranged with arterial roads and squares according to a horizontal plan. Contrary to Turkish architectural design, the development of the most important and representative buildings like mosques start with the landscape profile to emphasize the vertical orientation. According to Sinan. this concept will be developed to the point where the mosque determines the profile of the whole city because it has a dominant position. Turkish city structure held on two major things that nomadic origin of Ottomans and their conversion to Islam. One cannot find the big public spaces for the community as they existed in the Greek, Roman, or Byzantines. The bazaars were covered vaults.

Imarets of Ottoman’s

 Imarets the most important part of the Ottoman cities. It is an idea not same with the public space. Religious and social place, it included a mosque, madrasa, hospital, tomb, library etc.

Bursa, Yıldırım Beyazit Imaret

There are no axes to parallel nearby buildings. There is no hierarchy of the spaces that correct the whole complex. The only thing that being higher and larger than all buildings the mosque was dominated than other buildings. Includes mosque, madrasa, turbé, nursery, refectory of the natives, public baths and caravanserai.

Edirne, Beyazit II Imaret

Layout of the complex was influenced by the lanes and neighbour houses.

Istanbul, Suleymaniye Imaret

The layout on a hill. The symmetrical placement of the other buildings relative to the main axis of the mosque strengthens the hierarchy of the complex. The sacred structure and the buildingd surrounding it already existed in the Beyazit II imaret.

The Han (Caravanserai)

The only type of the hostel in Ottoman Empire was Hans. It is usually located in the center of the city, so its forms had to adopted to the irregular construction of the urban environment. Generally they were two-storey buildings. Their functions that served the individual rooms for the traveler, trading place and markets.

-Rustem Pasha Han, Istanbul

-Koza Han, Bursa

Selimiye Mosque

The interior of the mosque is made of cut stone. Dome of the mosque is bigger than the Hagia Sophia’s dome, connected by arches sits on eight big positions. At the middle of the mosque, there is a fountain. Besides the Ottoman architectural features, stone, marble, wood etc. were used in there. Two rectangular areas around the courtyard are symmetric forms. West gate opens to the courtyard When people came from the door they faced the bowl with a marble fountain.

 

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